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Africanism (pan-Africanism)

  Africanism is the ideological belief that all of the native peoples of the continent of Africa are a singular race or ethnicity. It is the first principle of a broad political and cultural movement which aims to promote the welfare of Africans worldwide. Among the African diaspora Africanism has historically been invoked to oppose slavery and racial discrimination, as well as to promote ‘back-to-Africa’ movements among American and Caribbean slaves, and their descendants.

Pan-Africanism is a movement whose goal is the establishment of a single, unified state of Africa. Influenced by the populist rhetoric of the Jamaican Marcus Garvey (1887 - 1940) and the more intellectual work of , W.E.B. Du Bois (1868 - 1963) from the US, the Pan-African movement became a central pillar of the anti-colonial independence movements of the 1950s and 1960s. Fervently promoted by the ‘Casablanca Group’ of nations led by Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, the Pan-African ideal of a single state was resisted by Haile Selassie\'s ‘Monrovia Group’ which preferred to emphasize political and economic co-operation between and among independent African states. The Organization for African Unity (OAU), formed in 1963, represented the institutional success of the more moderate goals of the Monrovia Group. Pan-Africanism today is an aspiration with little popular or governmental support. BO\'L

See also nationalism; négritude.Further reading P. Olisanwuche Esedebe, Pan-Africanism: The Idea and Movement, 1766-1963; , W. Ofuatey-Kodjoe (ed.), Pan-Africanism: New Directions in Strategy.



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