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Annales School

  The first name of the French journal Annales: économies, sociétés, civilisations was given to the group of French historians who founded it and shared common methodological principles. The most famous early members of the school were Marc Bloch and Lucien Febvre; more recent historians associated with the school include Fernand Braudel and Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie. Braudel\'s The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II and his three-volume Civilization and Capitalism are among the most famous outputs of the Annales school.

There are four distinctive hallmarks of the school: their criticism of historians who focus too much on events; their belief that historians can and should use the methods of the social sciences; their rejection of the traditional historian\'s narrow focus on ‘high politics’; and their focus on very long-term historical structures and dynamics (la longue durée). The emphasis on the long term, historical geography, material culture and the study of ‘mentalities’ is what most distinguishes current exponents of the school, as the belief that historians should employ the methods of the social sciences is now widely accepted by historians, at least outside the British Isles. BO\'L

See also historical materialism.Further reading Marc Bloch, Feudal Society.



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