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  Brutalism (from French brut, ‘unadorned’) was an architectural movement which had great vogue in the 1950s and 1960s: it seemed at the time as if every prize-winning new building was a monument to bare cement, breeze-blocks and unconcealed ducts and pipes. The chief architects of Brutalism included Paul Rudolph (1918) in the US and Alison and Peter Smithson (1920s-) in the UK. Among the movement\'s characteristic relics are several postwar British universities and the graceless new towns in which they are placed; in each case the feeling that buildings come first and human needs nowhere (for all the architects\' nobler convictions) is strong. Nonetheless, although pure brutalism was everything its name seemed to promise, the idea of unadorned beauty did lead distinction to several buildings in a more eclectic style, of which the Baubourg in Paris is a fine example. KMcL  



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