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  Monism (from Greek monos, ‘sole’), in philosophy, is the doctrine that everything is of the same fundamental kind. Materialists hold that everything including any mental things is physical. Idealists hold that everything including the physical is mental. And neutral monists hold that everything mental and physical is made up of the same neutral stuff; minds and bodies are both made up of the same neutral stuff, and the difference between them is due to the different ways in which it is put together.

In contrast to these three versions of monism is dualism, which holds that there are two fundamental kinds of thing. Dualism holds that there is a non-physical mental realm and a non-mental physical realm. AJ



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