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  Neuroses have been regarded throughout the history of modern psychology to be the result of secrets. Moritz Benedikt published in the mid- to late 19th century cases of hysteria and other neuroses, showing that their causes were secrets, usually pertaining to sexual life. Mesmerism and hypnotism recognized that hidden aspects cause neurotic illness. In Freud this idea of the pathogenic secret became further developed in the notions of trauma, reminiscences, repression and guilt feelings, and he too saw neuroses as a result of repressed sexuality. The Reverend Pfister of Zurich used the cure of souls in his 19th-century practice, uncovering the unpleasant memories that made his patients and parishioners ill or depressed. Adler thought that neuroses were the result of inferiority complexes and the resulting masculine protest. Jung saw them as a result of an imbalance of types within the self. Types of neuroses have been variously described as traumatic, war neuroses, anxiety neuroses, hysteria, neurasthenia (male hysteria), obsessions, phobias and transference neuroses (in psychoanalysis). MJ  



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