
Transformation (Latin, â€˜shaping acrossâ€™), in mathematics, is a type of function. In origin, it is an idea from projective geometry, based on the examples of rotations (which turn a figure about a point without altering the lengths of lines or the angles between them) and translations (which move a figure along a line without altering the lengths of lines or the angles between them). The concept proved important in linear algebra, where linear transformations were developed: transformations which preserve the operations of addition of vectors and multiplication by scalars.
In genetics, a transformation is a change in the genome of a microorganism brought about by the introduction of nucleic acid by physical or chemical means, such as microinjection of genetic material into the nucleus of an individual cell. Where the same event occurs as a result of a vector, for example a virus, the phenomenon is termed transduction. RB SMcL
See also gene therapy; genetic engineering.Further reading J. Singh, Mathematical Ideas. 
